The behaviorism is a psychological theory that studies the observable behavior by establishing the relationships between the stimuli and the responses. This theory emanates from the American psychologist John Broadus Watson who believes that psychology should study the external phenomena of behavior that is measurable to the opposite of what is internal not measurable. Watson contended that psychology should study measurable responses from stimuli of the environment. His model is the laboratory experiences of the biologist Ivan Pavlov. Pavlov found that dogs salivate to the ring of a bell if that bell was previously associated to food. Pavlov explained this phenomenon in terms of laboratory conditions rather than in terms of mental processes.
Wilhem Wundt, the father of scientific psychology, pretended that spirit is a natural phenomenon and can be studied the same way as the heat, light, electricity, etc. Wundt introduced the concept of introspection to study the fundamental processes of thought. Wundt and his colleagues exposed themselves to a variety of sounds and images and attempt to describe the sensations and emotions expressed in regard to these stimuli.. Wundt and his students founded the school of psychology known as structuralism. The structuralism tries to define the content of the conscious experience by decomposing it in sensations, emotions and images.
The argument of gestalt psychologists is that the human perception cannot be explained in terms of single units. They claim that we tend to perceive elements of information as integrated sets or according to the context in which our perceptions take place. They studied the role of insight in the resolution of problems by animals and humans. Their findings suggest that, faced to a problem, we play with its mental representation until we regroup the elements that allows us to perceive the solution. These manipulations take time but once the appropriate regrouping is found we perceive the solution suddenly.
The cognitive tradition includes several fields of study. The study of the swiss psychologist Jean Piaget on the the cognitive development of the child inspired thousands of research projects noticeably in genetic psychology and in psychopedagogy. Piaget research concentrates on how children and adults represent the world and how they reason.
The cognitive psychologists affirm that our behavior is influenced by our values, our perception of the situation and our choices. Those who believe that aggression is justified tend to act accordingly. Those who don't act differently. Piaget states that our moral judgment varies with maturity. A child tends to act aggressively according to his/her age.
The humanist psychology is a recent tradition issued from the cognitivist tradition. Its elements of concentration are the human consciousness, the knowledge of self and the ability to make choices.
The Psychoanalytic perspective
The psychoanalytic perspective and aggressiveness
The biological perspective