Friday, June 9, 2017

Derivative of logarithmic functions

In this post I'll show some techniques to remember the formulas for logarithmic  functions. I'll do some examples and leave some exercises to practice.

Derivative of logarithmic functions 

Derivative of logbx


d/dx (logbx) = 1/xlnb
To remember this formula let's apply the following technique:
1) Multiply the number of which we calculate the logarithm by the natural logarithm of the base. The number here is x and the base is b. Therefore we have xlnb
2) Take the inverse of this product. The inverse of the product is 1/xlnx

Derivative of lnx

d/dx(lnx) = 1/x
The derivative of the logarithm of any number is equal to the inverse of this number.

Derivative of logbu

Since logbu is a composite function its derivative is given by d/dx(logbu) = d/du(logbu).du/dx

d/dx(logbu) = 1/ulnnb.du/dx

Rule: The derivative of the logarithm of a composite function is equal to its derivative with respect to the new variable (u) multiplied by the derivative of the new variable (u) with respect to x.

Derivative of lnu 

Since u is a composite function we have d/dx(lnu) = d/du(lnu).du/dx
                                                                              = i/u.du/dx

Rule: The derivative of the natural logarithm of a composite function u is equal to the inverse of the function multiplied by its derivative with respect to x

Example 1, Calculate the derivative of y = x³log52x

The derivative of y is y" = (x³log52x)'

Let's apply the product rule:
Y' = (x³)'(log52x) + x³(log52x)'
The derivative of x³ is obvious. Let's calculate the derivative  of log52x
Let's write u = 2x we have (log5u)' = d/du(log5u),du/dx
                                                     = i/uln5.u'
                                                    = 1/2x.ln5.(2x)'
                                                   = 1/2x.ln5.2
                                                   = 1/xln5
let's go back to the derivative of y we have:
y' = 3x²log52x + x³.1/xlnx
   = 3x²log52x+x²/lnx

Example 2.  Calculate the derivative of y = ln(2x²-4x+3)

Let's write u = 2x²-4x+3
We have y = lnu
Then dy/dx = d/dx(lnu)
Since lnu is a composite function then dy/dx = d/du(lnu).du/dx
                                                                      = 1/u(4x-4)
Substitute u: dy/dx = (1/2x³-4x+3).(4x-4)
dy/dx = 4x-4/2x²-4x+3
           = 4(x-1)/2x³-4x+3

Practice

Calculate the derivative of the following functions;
1.log₅(2x+5)
2. 5/log(x+4)
3. ln(sinx)

Interested in learning more about Calculus AB visit this site Center for Integral Development